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International press review Extrema Ratio - 24 April

Extrema Ratio focuses on the topics we work on, including geopolitcs, cybersecurity, critical technologies, foreign interference, disinformation, international law & national security.

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Extrema Ratio

However the reality is quite different Taiwan has never been Chinese

Chinese threats to Taiwan are an opportunity for Beijing both to bring the island into its authoritarian hands and to dismantle American alliances in the region.

Le voci sulla morte della valuta statunitense sono tanto esagerate quanto troppo spesso ripetute.

G e N Iuvinale

Pechino ha sviluppato un sistema che aiuta i paesi debitori ad evitare il default e continuare a onorare i loro debiti relativi alla Belt and Road Initiative.

G e N Iuvinale

Chinese companies banned or restricted by the US military and national security networks continue to enter into contracts with state governments and various government agencies such as offices, schools and law enforcement agencies.

Global Military Spending Reached All-Time High of $2.24 Trillion in 2022


The record spending calculated by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) shows “we are living in an increasingly insecure world,” a senior SIPRI researcher said. The region with the sharpest rise in spending was Europe, where defense spending jumped 13 percent last year. While Russia and Ukraine contributed the bulk of that surge, Central and West European military expenditures reached their highest levels in real terms since the Cold War. SIPRI noted significant spending boosts in countries elsewhere, including increases of 4.2 percent in China, 6 percent in India, 5.9 percent in Japan, and 16 percent in Saudi Arabia. The biggest spender was the United States, with expenditures of $877 billion, three times the amount from the second-biggest, China. In a sign that global military expenditures could continue to rise, Australia today unveiled what it called the biggest overhaul (CNN) of its military preparedness since World War II.


  • China’s ambassador to France claims ex-Soviet states lack basis for sovereignty under international law. Ambassador Lu Shaye made the comments during a TV interview when asked about his position on whether Crimea is part of Ukraine or not. Stacy Meichtry and Laurence Normal.Wall Street Journal

  • Baltic states condemn China envoy’s remarks. Lithuania’s foreign minister, Gabrielius Landsbergis, said the Chinese ambassador’s remarks demonstrated why European countries had little faith in China’s ability to play a constructive role in brokering peace in Ukraine. Patrick Wintour.The Guardian

  • Albanese Government releases Australia’s long-awaited strategic defence review. The report does not label China a direct military threat, but says assertion of sovereignty over the contested South China Sea ‘threatens the global rules-based order in the Indo-Pacific in a way that adversely impacts Australia’s national interests’. Daniel Hurst.The Guardian

  • Stewart McDonald calls for Scottish Government to build a comprehensive China strategy. The SNP MP and former Spokesperson for Defence says Scotland must follow Brussels and move to de-risk relationship with China. The Scotsman

  • British firms warned they ‘shouldn’t ignore’ escalating tensions in the Indo-Pacific. Private sector encouraged to assess supply chain resiliency strategies in the event of a potential conflict in Taiwan. James Warrington. The Telegraph

  • EU member states and institutions said to be at odds over revival of the Comprehensive Agreement on Investment with China. An informal meeting of EU foreign ministers will discuss EU-China relations on May 12, during which they will decide when the topic of China is again put on the table of the European Council. Jamil Anderlini. Politico

  • GCHQ-linked government fund acquires stake in Cambridge quantum computing start-up.The UK’s national quantum strategy is put into practice as the National Security Strategic Investment Fund (NSSIF) invests in Riverlane. Matthew Field and James Titcomb.The Telegraph

  • Israel appeals to China for help tackling Iran nuclear threat. Israeli foreign minister Eli Cohen asks Chinese counterpart to use the country’s ‘influence’ to stop Tehran’s nuclear regime. James Rothwell. The Telegraph

  • EU diplomat proposes European navy patrols in Taiwan Strait. EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell made the proposals in an opinion piece in the Journal Du Dimanche. The Guardian

  • Taiwan officials urge US to calm rhetoric about dangers of relying on TSMC. US officials have declared dependence on Taiwanese chips ‘unsafe’ and investors are listening. South China Morning Post

  • Shein to invest US$ 150 million into Brazil expansion amidst US scrutiny. The e-commerce platform has chosen Brazil as its manufacturing and export hub for Latin America. Coco Feng. South China Morning Post

  • China ramps up coal power despite carbon neutral pledges. Local governments approved more new coal power in the first quarter this year than in the whole of 2021. Amy Hawkins.The Guardian

  • Politburo warns officials not to hide assets or business connections. China has moved to tighten rules on declaring personal assets and business ties as part of ongoing anti-corruption drive. William Zheng.South China Morning Post

  • Dutch bank ING sues ICBC for losses sustained in copper deals. The Dutch bank is seeking US$170 million in damages after ICBC released export documents without collecting payment. The case is reportedly being investigated by China’s banking regulator. South China Morning Post

  • Chipmaker Yangtze Memory Technologies Corp (YMTC) is leading China’s efforts to become self-sufficient in semiconductor production. YMTC is reportedly making progress in producing advanced 3D NAND products with locally sourced equipment. Che Pan and Ann Cao. South China Morning Post

  • Six priorities for ‘de-risking’ EU relations with China.Mikko Huotari and Grzegorz Stecs.MERICS

  • China’s miraculous growth machine is juddering to a halt. Why China looks unlikely to meet economic forecasts. Cindy Yu. The Telegraph

  • Chinese censorship is quietly rewriting the Covid-19 story. Reporters piece together how the Chinese Government pressured to scientists to withhold data, withdraw genetic sequences from public databases and alter journal submissions. Mara Hvistendahl and Benjamin Mueller.The New York Times

  • Is Taiwan about to lose Paraguay, its last ally in South America? Polls are showing a narrow lead for Paraguay’s opposition candidate Efrain Alegre in this month’s presidential elections. Alegre, leader of the Authentic Radical Liberal Party, pledged to cut ties with Taiwan if he wins the presidency. Xinlu Liang.South China Morning Post


Recently, Power China Haitou signed an investment agreement with renewable energy developer CWP Europe, intending to acquire a 51% stake in the Vetrozelena wind power project being developed by the latter in Serbia, with CWP Europe holding the remaining 49% stake. The Vetrozelena wind power project is located in Pancevo, 40 kilometers away from Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. The total installed capacity of the project is 297.6MW, and the planned investment is about 400 million euros. Developed by CWP Europe in 2020, the Vetrozelena project is scheduled to start construction at the end of 2023 and enter commercial operation in 2025.

China is willing to deepen international data cooperation with other countries within the framework of the Global Development Initiative, Chinese President Xi Jinping said on Monday.

Xi's remarks were made in a congratulatory message to the 4th United Nations World Data Forum in Hangzhou, the capital of eastern China's Zhejiang province, scheduled from April 24 to 27.

The Spectator

The notion that if only the west shows resolve, China won’t risk its prosperity, or will postpone aggression indefinitely, is a liberal daydream.

Helsinki Times

China is dominating the global race for future power, with the country establishing a significant lead in high-impact research across the majority of critical and emerging technology domains, according to a report from the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. The report, called the Critical Technology Tracker, examines 44 critical technologies spanning defence, space, robotics, energy, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, advanced materials and key quantum technology areas.

China to amend anti-espionage law to cover cyberattacks by foreign spies and ‘surrogates’ South China Morning Post William Zheng China will amend its anti-espionage law, listing cyberattacks by a “spying entity or its surrogate” as an act of espionage for the first time. A spokesman from China’s top legislature said on Friday that the change was one of the items on the agenda of a legislative meeting next week focused on revising the country’s anti-espionage law, with new provisions related to cyberespionage.

China’s top memory chip maker YMTC making progress in producing advanced 3D NAND products with locally sourced equipment: sources South China Morning Post Che Pan and Ann Cao Chinese chip maker Yangtze Memory Technologies Corp is planning to use domestically sourced equipment to make advanced flash memory products after it was put on a US trade blacklist last year, according to industry sources.

China wants to use supercomputing to accelerate digital transformation ZDNET Eileen Yu China is looking to establish a national supercomputing framework to drive its digital plans and the development of emerging technologies, including artificial intelligence. Expected to be ready by the end of 2025, the framework is expected to help pull together computing resources across the country and support local development efforts. The aim is to establish a more coordinated system, so compute capacity can be better distributed to where it is needed most, according to local media reports citing the Ministry of Science and Technology.

Microsoft president warns China becoming close rival of ChatGPT Nikkei Asia Keiichi Murayama and Mitsuru Obe Chinese research organizations and companies will emerge as major rivals of ChatGPT, warns Microsoft President Brad Smith, whose company is the biggest investor in OpenAI, the developer of the AI-powered chatbot. As competition heats up among U.S. technology giants such as Amazon and Google in the development of generative AI, Smith said China will not be far behind.

Can Xi Jinping control AI without crushing it? The Economist Ai poses a challenge for China’s rulers. The “generative” sort, which processes inputs of text, image, audio or video to create new outputs of the same, holds great promise. Chinese tech firms, hit hard in recent years by a regulatory crackdown and sluggish sales, hope that generative ai can create vast new revenue streams, similar to the opportunities brought by the advent of the internet or the smartphone.


  • South Korean President Yoon Suk Yeol will arrive in the United States today to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the U.S.-South Korea partnership amid growing calls from South Koreans to develop their own nuclear weapons. A recent Asan Institute for Policy Studies poll showed that more than 54% of respondents believed the United States would not risk its safety to protect South Korea. More than 64% supported South Korea developing nuclear weapons. Hyonhee Shin reports for Reuters.

  • Former Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo was extradited from the United States yesterday to face graft charges in Peru. Prosecutors have for years sought to extradite Toledo over charges that he took a $20 million bribe from Brazilian construction company Odebrecht in exchange for contracts for a highway project connecting southern Peru to Brazil. He faces 20 years in prison. Ryan Dube reports for the Wall Street Journal

China building cyber weapons to hijack enemy satellites, says US leak Financial Times Mehul Srivastava, Felicia Schwartz and Demetri Sevastopulo China is building sophisticated cyber weapons to “seize control” of enemy satellites, rendering them useless for data signals or surveillance during wartime, according to a leaked US intelligence report.

Lawmakers introduce bill to counter Chinese cyber threats against Taiwan The Hill Ines Kagubare Senate and House lawmakers introduced bipartisan legislation on Thursday that would boost cybersecurity collaboration between the U.S. and Taiwan to counter cyberattacks from China.

Homeland Security chief Mayorkas announces 90-day China sprint and AI task force CyberScoop Christian Vasquez Secretary of Homeland Security Alejandro Mayorkas announced on Friday that his department will carry out a 90-day sprint to study and counter threats from Beijing and that the department will form a task force to examine how to integrate artificial intelligence into its work.

Biden administration wants to avoid 5G mistakes in race to beat China on 6G CyberScoop Tonya Riley The United States is aiming to shape the development of 6G telecom technology at an early stage of research and development and to avoid letting China build up an early lead in next-generation telecommunications, a senior Biden administration official told reporters ahead of a Friday summit on 6G.

Biden’s order against commercial spyware is ‘upsetting the market’ The Hill Ines Kagubare President Biden’s recent executive order targeting the use of commercial spyware poses a serious threat to the digital surveillance industry, experts say, as some companies weigh the impact that the decision will have on their businesses.

Smart gun operating on facial recognition goes on sale in US Reuters Matt Mcknight and Daniel Trotta Colorado-based Biofire Tech is taking orders for a smart gun enabled by facial-recognition technology, the latest development in personalized weapons that can only be fired by verified users.

Chip designer Arm makes its own advanced prototype semiconductor Financial Times Cheng Ting-Fang, Anna Gross and Tim Bradshaw Arm is developing its own chip to showcase the capabilities of its designs, as the SoftBank-owned group seeks to attract new customers and fuel growth following a blockbuster IPO later this year.

Chip industry slowdown will last longer than expected, manufacturers warn Financial Times Tim Bradshaw Semiconductor companies have signalled that the industry’s sharpest slowdown in more than a decade is lasting longer than expected, as weakening demand for automotive components compounds slumping personal computer and smartphone sales.

Energy sector orgs in US, Europe hit by same supply chain attack as 3CX The Record by Recorded Future Jonathan Greig The same initial supply chain attack allegedly launched by North Korean hackers against enterprise phone company 3CX also affected two critical infrastructure organizations based in the United States and Europe.

Silicon Valley’s top EU data enforcer rejects snipes over speed Bloomberg Stephanie Bodoni and Chad Thomas Big Tech’s top privacy watchdog in the European Union took aim at critics who blame her office for taking far too long to issue rulings against Silicon Valley firms.

Agents, influence and interference: The new age of espionage is here The Age Matthew Knott On Tuesday federal prosecutors accused two New York residents, “Harry” Lu Jianwang and Chen Jinping, of working together to establish the first clandestine police station in America on behalf of China’s Ministry of Public Security. Lu and Chen have both been charged with acting as agents of the Chinese government and obstructing justice by destroying evidence of their communications with a security official in Beijing.

CISA’s cyber experts talk shop on the need for safer tech Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency Jack Cable, Grant Dasher and Bob Lord Last week, CISA and 9 U.S. and international cybersecurity agencies released a whitepaper titled "Shifting the Balance of Cybersecurity Risk: Principles and Approaches for Security-by-Design and Default." The document argues that we need to significantly reshape the way software is created to prioritize safety as a non-negotiable foundation.


Exactly whose interests would be revealed in a Foreign Influence Registry Act? The Star Charles Burton and Kaveh Shahrooz Politicians or civil servants with even the slightest role in shaping Canada’s foreign policy should be prohibited — including after they return to the private sector — from receiving payments or gifts for supporting a foreign nation’s agenda in Canada. They should also be required to declare all foreign sources of income to allay any concerns about a possible conflict of interest.


  • South Korea Restores Japan to List of Preferred Trade Partners. The move is part of a string of efforts (Yonhap) to improve bilateral relations. South Korea had removed Japan from the list in 2019 during a dispute over compensation for Japan’s actions during its colonial rule of the Korean Peninsula.

  • Afghanistan has become a significant coordination site for the self-styled Islamic State militant group as it plans attacks across Europe and Asia, and conducts “aspirational plotting” against the United States, according to leaked intelligence reports. The documents reveal specific efforts to target embassies, churches, business centers, and the World Cup soccer tournament. At least 15 plots by Islamic State leaders in Afghanistan have been identified as of February. Dan Lamothe and Joby Warrick report for the Washington Post

  • Afghanistan: The self-declared Islamic State is again using Afghanistan to coordinate plans (WaPo) for attacks across Asia and Europe, according to leaked U.S. military documents that were posted to the social platform Discord in recent weeks.

  • Ex–UN Chief Visits Myanmar. Former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon traveled to Myanmar (AP) yesterday on behalf of the Elders, a group of senior political figures who engage in global peacemaking and human rights initiatives. Outside efforts to mediate peace in Myanmar following the country’s 2021 coup have so far been unsuccessful.

India: AI journalism sparks concern DW Murali Krishnan An Indian media group unveiled its first full-time artificial intelligence (AI) news anchor this month — a bot named Sana who presents news updates several times a day. The AI-powered reporter appears on the India Today Group's Aaj Tak news channel. Sana has a human-like appearance and is fed with data that it can read using text-to-speech technology.

India’s 5 million coders will reckon with an AI jobpocalypse Bloomberg Saritha Rai If the sort of technology underpinning ChatGPT displaces software engineers, no single country would be impacted more than India, home to over 5 million coders.

How ransomware prevails as a threat for businesses across Asia Pacific Economic Times Saachi Gupta Ghosh Ransomware continues to be a major issue for businesses across Asia Pacific owing to the region’s increasingly fast pace of digital disruption and connectivity. It is an evolving and diversifying threat that can include the theft of sensitive or confidential information and a threat to publicly leak the data until the ransom is paid.


  • Disagreement between France and Germany on how to proceed with the moribund E.U.-China Comprehensive Agreement on Investment further deepens the European divide on its China relationship. France views the Agreement as “less urgent” and “just not practicable,” while Germany is in favor of “reactivating” it. Beijing has proved skilled at preventing the E.U. from developing a unified China policy. Jamil Anderlini reports for POLITICO

  • Strategists observing the preparations for Ukraine’s “high stakes” counter-offensive say they expect the push in May or June. Mark Kimmitt, a retired U.S. Army brigadier general who commanded artillery units, has said, “With little battlefield progress and declining attention worldwide, the Ukrainians must break out of the current stalemate or face increased calls for a cease-fire and negotiations.” Daniel Michaels and James Marson report for the Wall Street Journal.

  • Despite deliveries of powerful Western weapons, Ukraine still falls short of what U.S. military planners have assessed Ukraine needs to retake territory captured by Russia, according to leaked intelligence reports dated February and March. While additional weapons and supplies have been delivered to Ukraine since the assessments were made, key components, like Abrams tanks, are unlikely to arrive before the counter-offensive begins. Lara Jakes and John Ismay report for the New York Times

  • Hungary’s Prime Minister Viktor Orban has cast doubt on Ukraine’s eventual accession into NATO, despite NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg saying on Friday that all “allies have agreed that Ukraine will become a NATO member.” Orban tweeted, “What?!” in response to Stoltenberg’s comments. Orban is less critical of Russian President Vladimir Putin than other Western leaders. Orban has also shown a willingness to oppose NATO’s expansion to include Finland and Sweden. Matt Murphy reports for BBC News

  • France, Ukraine, and the Baltic states expressed dismay after China’s ambassador to France questioned the sovereignty of former Soviet countries. “Ex-Soviet countries do not have an effective status in international law because there was no international agreement to materialize their status as sovereign countries,” Chinese ambassador Lu Shaye said. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia will summon Chinese representatives to ask for clarification, Lithuanian Foreign Minister Gabrielius Landsbergis confirmed today. Simone McCarthy reports for CNN.

  • Belgium: Envoys from nine EU countries are in Belgium for a summit on renewable power (RFI) that aims to increase wind energy generation in the North Sea.

Finland, now a NATO member, sees an uptick in cyberattacks The Record by Recorded Future James Reddick Finnish organizations are increasingly being targeted with cyberattacks, the government announced Friday — two weeks after the country officially joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Irish government staff advised to remove TikTok from work devices Reuters Padraic Halpin The state body responsible for advising the Irish government on cyber security recommended on Friday that staff at government departments and state agencies not use Chinese-owned video app TikTok on official devices.


Government launches new cyber security measures to tackle ever growing threats UK Government New cyber security measures will increase the UK’s cyber resilience and protect the UK government’s essential IT functions from ever growing threats. Under the new rules, all central government departments will have their cyber health reviewed annually through new, more robust criteria.

UK set to legislate to create new regulator to tackle Big Tech Financial Times Kate Beioley and Jim Pickard The British government is set to introduce legislation within days to establish a new regulator to police the growing dominance of big technology platforms, such as Google, Amazon and Facebook.

Middle East and Africa

  • The paramilitary organization Wagner Group aims to establish a “confederation” of anti-Western states in Africa in a bid to foment instability while bolstering Russia’s allies, according to leaked intelligence reports. Despite U.S. efforts to disrupt Wagner, it has gained strategic footholds in at least eight African countries. Greg Miller and Robyn Dixon report for the Washington Post

  • The paramilitary organization Wagner Group has offered weapons to the paramilitary fighting the army for control of Sudan, according to U.S. officials. While Wagner founder Yevgeny Prigozhin publicly said he wanted peace, he is intent on fueling the fighting between the two military factions in Sudan. Since 2019, Wagner has expanded its activities in Sudan, mining for gold, exploring for uranium, and supplying mercenaries to the region of Darfur. Eric Schmitt and Edward Wong report for the New York Times

  • Syrian, Russian, and Iranian defense ministers and intelligence chiefs are set to meet in Moscow tomorrow, the Turkish state-owned Anadolu news agency has reported. The meeting comes amid efforts to rebuild Turkey-Syria ties after years of animosity during the Syrian war. Reuters reports.

  • Syrians Protest Arab Countries’ Rapprochement With Assad. Hundreds of people across rebel-held northwestern Syria yesterday demonstrated against the warming ties (Al Jazeera) between the government of President Bashar al-Assad and multiple Arab nations.

  • A growing list of countries evacuated diplomats and citizens from Sudan’s capital as fierce fighting continues to rage. The U.S. yesterday announced that its diplomats had been airlifted out of Sudan. The World Health Organization says the fighting killed over 400 people and injured thousands. Laura Gozzi and Alys Davies report for BBC News

  • Ethiopian Prime Minister Announces Peace Talks With Rebels in Oromia. The Oromo Liberation Army rebel group, from the Oromia region, has fought the Ethiopian government (Reuters) intermittently in the past few decades. They have clashed on a separate front from the government’s recent war with rebels in the Tigray region.

  • Israel: Ahead of the country’s seventy-fifth anniversary this week, tens of thousands of people rallied in Tel Aviv and other cities over the weekend to protest Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s plans (AP) to overhaul the judicial system.

Sudan internet shutting down as fighting causes power cuts The Record by Recorded Future Jonathan Greig Sudan is experiencing severe internet outages amid a power struggle that has pitted the army against a powerful paramilitary force in the streets of the capital Khartoum and around the country.

NZ & Pacific Islands

The multi-billion-dollar question that could pit Australia and its neighbours against each other SBS News Lucy Murray Hundreds of billions of dollars is sitting in the depths of the Pacific Ocean, but the decision about whether to extract them is pitting neighbour against neighbour. Nuggets containing metals used in batteries and electric cars sit five kilometres below the ocean's surface and four Pacific nations, including the Cook Islands are looking to cash in.


  • Australia needs to overhaul its defense, according to a government-commissioned Defense Strategic Review released today. The public version of the classified review suggests Australia needs to boost its defense budget, make its own munitions and develop the ability to strike longer-range targets as China’s military buildup challenges regional security. Rod McGuirk reports for AP News

Inquiry hears TikTok will continue to 'subtly' censor despite public pressure, government ban SBS News Finn McHugh Public controversy around TikTok’s may mean the company no longer overtly bans critics of the Chinese Communist Party, but censorship on the platform will continue in “subtle” ways, parliament has been told. A Senate inquiry has also heard Chinese-language messaging app WeChat, used by politicians to communicate with thousands of Chinese-Australians, committed “textbook foreign interference” when former prime minister Scott Morrison was locked out of his account.

‘No sense of safety’: Australian citizens reveal extraordinary lengths Chinese Communist Party will go to silence dissent Sky News Patrick Hannaford An Australian parliamentary committee has heard about the harrowing experiences of two Chinese-Australians subject to extraordinary harassment campaigns by the Chinese Communist Party. Journalist Vicky Xu and artist Badiucao spoke to the senate committee on foreign interference through social media, detailing the CCP lengths the Chinese government will go to silence foreign dissidents.

Bosch taps Monash University to boost supply of environmentally friendly semiconductors The Australian Jared Lynch Australia is playing a key role in boosting the global supply of semiconductors, with the world’s biggest auto parts supplier tapping researchers at a Melbourne university to develop technology to increase output.

'Wake-up call for corporate Australia': 100,000 people join Optus data breach class action SBS News A class action against Optus over a massive data breach will ask the courts to put a price on Australians' privacy and is expected to serve as a wake-up call to the corporate world.

Australia to accelerate missile build-up as defence industry anxiously awaits review recommendations ABC News Andrew Greene The public version of the Albanese government's long-awaited Defence Strategic Review will confirm cuts to several projects such as new Army vehicles, while funding more immediate priorities that deliver "impactful projection" well beyond Australia. Emerging cyber and space capabilities will also be prominent in Monday's DSR document with the authors acknowledging the importance of the two domains during the ongoing conflict against Russia's invasion.

Australia to dramatically scale back spending on infantry fighting vehicles in major defence overhaul The Guardian It has identified more than $42bn in defence spending over the decade to 2032-33 that was announced between mid-2020 and the establishment of the defence review in August last year “without the provision of any additional allocation in the commonwealth budget”. This is believed to include $7.9bn in further funding for the Redspice cybersecurity program beyond 2025-26.


3CX software supply chain compromise initiated by a prior software supply chain compromise; suspected North Korean actor responsible Mandiant Jeff Johnson, Fred Plan, Adrian Sanchez, Renato Fontana, Jack Nicastro, Dimiter Andonov, Marius Fodoreanu, and Daniel Scott 3CX Desktop App is enterprise software that provides communications for its users including chat, video calls, and voice calls. In late March, 2023, a software supply chain compromise spread malware via a trojanized version of 3CX’s legitimate software that was available to download from their website. Mandiant tracks this activity as UNC4736, a suspected North Korean nexus cluster of activity.

Photo: La Cina di Xi Jinping - Verso un nuovo ordine mondiale sinocentrico? (Italian)

Gabriele and Nicola Iuvinale

ASE 2023

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