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International press review Extrema Ratio May 1, 2023

Extrema Ratio focuses on the topics we work on, including geopolitcs, cybersecurity, critical technologies, foreign interference, disinformation, international law & national security.



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Extrema Ratio

Il Partito Comunista Cinese (PCC) ha approvato la nuova legge anti-spionaggio, che entrerà in vigore il 1° luglio di quest'anno.

La revisione ha ampliato la definizione di spionaggio, rendendola più ampia e vaga. Gli osservatori sui diritti umani ritengono che si tratti di un'escalation nella repressione del popolo cinese e che verrà utilizzata per colpire ulteriormente individui e società straniere in Cina.

Un rapporto del National Intelligence Council Usa del 2020, ora reso pubblico, evidenzia la capacità di interferenza della Cina nella politica e nelle elezioni dei Paesi target anche con l’uso dell’IA e dei big data. Xi Jinping sarebbe pronto a usare ogni arma, lecita o illecita, per raggiungere una preminenza globale.

Sabato scorso gli Stati Uniti hanno invitato Pechino a porre fine alle sue azioni "provocatorie e pericolose" nelle acque contese del Mar Cinese Meridionale dopo che è stata scongiurata una collisione dell'ultimo minuto tra una nave della guardia costiera cinese e una nave filippina. Un attacco armato nell'Oceano Pacifico, che comprende il Mar Cinese Meridionale, contro le forze armate filippine, navi o aerei, inclusa la guardia costiera, comporterebbe l'applicazione degli impegni di mutua difesa degli Stati Uniti alle Filippine, basati su un trattato del 1951.

Il vento politico in Europa soffia verso l’aggressività di Von der Leyen, non verso la moderazione di Macron; verso il contenimento, non la cooperazione. Al prossimo vertice del G7 a maggio sarà decisa la creazione di una zona economica speciale per lo scambio di materie prime critiche che Pechino ha monopolizzato a livello globale. Anche la Germania si unirà alla politica di contenimento, interrompendo la fornitura in Cina di prodotti necessari alla produzione di chip come lenti e polveri chimiche. Gli effetti del contenimento sulla vendita di chip già ha iniziato a dare i suoi frutti rallentando la crescita del PIL cinese. Tuttavia, la nuova legge sul controspionaggio voluta da Pechino fa si che le imprese estere "camminino sulle uova" e dovranno prestare la massima attenzione. Intanto la reazione di Pechino non si è fatta attendere: iniziate le prime perquisizioni nelle aziende statunitensi in Cina. Anche la reazione di XiJinping non tarderà: urge progettare contromisure per tutelare le aziende italiane e preparare una exit strategy dalla Cina.

Il ruolo della Cina come gestore delle crisi internazionali è cresciuto esponenzialmente negli ultimi anni dopo il lungo boom dei prestiti all'estero. Tuttavia, è ben lungi dal rivaleggiare con quello degli Stati Uniti o del FMI, che sono al centro dell'odierno sistema finanziario e monetario internazionale.

La mancanza di norme pattizie che disciplinano espressamente le azioni degli Stati e di altri attori nel cyberspazio non significa che questa “arena” debba restare senza disciplina. In linea generale sono applicabili le norme di diritto internazionale derivate da trattati e da altre fonti del diritto. Facciamo il punto.

Tutte le persone fisiche e giuridiche interessate dalla legge sul controspionaggio divengono una potenziale estensione all'estero dell'intelligence di stato cinese.

he Chinese public security agency's "Fox Hunt 2022" operation arrested more than 700 people from overseas and recovered 1 billion yuan of stolen goods. The news published today by China News Agency.

The special operation "Fox Hunt 2023" is a part of the "Skynet 2023" operation deployed by the Central Anti-Corruption Coordination Group International Fugitive Recovery and Cross-Border Corruption Governance Office.

Launched in 2014 and established the following year, Sky Net started its operations in April 2015 under the guidance of the Central Commission for Disciplinary Inspection (CCDI) of the CCP, in cooperation with the Supreme Court, the Supreme Prosecutor, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Justice, Banca Popolare Chinese and the Ministry of Public Security, in charge of operations Fox Hunt.

Following the establishment of the National Commission Supervisory Authority (NSC) in 2018, Sky Net came under the direct command of the latter, who has since supervised the operations to capture anyone was considered a "fugitive" by the CCP.

Sulla base della visita di stato di tre giorni di Emmanuel Macron nella Repubblica popolare cinese all'inizio di questo mese, la risposta a questa domanda è un dubbio.

Dire che il presidente francese si è inchinato a Xi Jinping, il sovrano cinese più potente dai tempi di Mao Zedong, sarebbe un'esagerazione, ma non di molto.


Alludendo all'intenzione di Xi di sostituire gli Stati Uniti come leader globale, Macron avrebbe detto a Xi: "La Francia non prende posizione". Il nuovo ordine internazionale previsto da Xi si baserebbe sulle regole stabilite dal Partito Comunista Cinese (PCC).

Chinese staff at the so-called Confucius Institutes across the United Kingdom are recruited to enforce Chinese Communist Party (CCP) discipline and values in the country, new research has found. The state-sponsored Confucius Institute program, named after the ancient Chinese philosopher, was established 20 years ago to promote Chinese language and culture overseas and support Chinese-language teaching. There are more than 530 institutes based at universities worldwide, 30 of them are in the U.K.

World

The perilous path to a new cybercrime treaty The Washington Post Tim Starks and David DiMolfetta A UN panel recently completed the latest round of negotiations over a new cybercrime treaty. That process is now rapidly hurtling toward its end. The thorny debate over the treaty has been marked by Russia pushing for a treaty that expands the definition of cybercrime in a way that worries the US, human rights activists and civil liberties groups. The US and its allies had been comfortable with a preexisting cybercrime treaty known as the Budapest Convention but have nonetheless engaged in the discussions.

China

China locks information on the country inside a black box The Wall Street Journal Lingling Wei, Yoko Kubota and Dan Strumpf China’s party-state, long steeped in secrecy, is creating a black box around information on the world’s second-largest economy, alarming global businesses and investors. Prodded by President Xi Jinping’s emphasis on national security, authorities in recent months have restricted or outright cut off overseas access to various databases involving corporate-registration information, patents, procurement documents, academic journals and official statistical yearbooks.

Key nations sit out US standoff with Russia, China, leaks show The Washington Post Missy Ryan China is growing more “brazen” in its cyberattacks and Russia is targeting US companies with intelligence operations over the war in Ukraine, the National Security Agency’s top cyber official told me in an interview Wednesday. That analysis comes as the Discord Leaks pose potential harm to spy agency assets and the NSA risks losing what it considers a key tool to combat hackers, Rob Joyce said.

How to Spy on China Foreign Affairs Peter Mattis There is no doubt that China is a vast, complicated, and hard intelligence target. Any spy agency would struggle to understand a strict dictatorship that governs nearly 1.4 billion people. But when it comes to maintaining secrets, China’s size and system can cut both ways. This sprawling structure means that, no matter how centralized decision-making is, most of China’s policy objectives and guidance must be communicated openly, creating a call-and-response dynamic that well-positioned analysts can freely observe.

USA

Janes

The US Navy (USN) will deploy a new Arctic navigation, communication, and environmental sensing system later in 2023, according to Admiral Michael Gilday, chief of naval operations (CNO).

“Our navy continues important communications, surveillance, navigation, marine meteorology, and physical oceanography research activities to improve situational awareness in support of future cold weather high-latitude operations, including the Arctic Submarine Lab and Polar Over-the-Horizon Radar,” Adm Gilday testified on 28 April before the House Armed Services Committee.

“For example, prototype components of the Arctic Mobile Observing System (AMOS) will be deployed in October 2023 using a variety of autonomous platforms over a year-long deployment to demonstrate under-ice navigation, communication, and environmental sensing,” Adm Gilday testified.

US Coast Guard (USCG) medium icebreaker USCGC Healy (WAGB-20) completed operations in the Beaufort Sea during the third quarter of 2022 in support of the AMOS programme, Healy 's Captain Ken Boda told Janes.

gCaptain

The US accused China of harassing Philippine ships and reaffirmed its defense commitment to the Philippines ahead of a visit to Washington by President Ferdinand Marcos Jr.

“The United States stands with the Philippines,” State Department spokesman Matthew Miller said in a statement, citing video from media reports of an incident in which two Chinese coast guard vessels blocked Philippine patrol boats in the vicinity of Ayungin shoal on April 23.

The DOJ detected the SolarWinds hack 6 months earlier than first disclosed WIRED Kim Zetter The US Department of Justice, Mandiant, and Microsoft stumbled upon the SolarWinds breach six months earlier than previously reported, WIRED has learned, but were unaware of the significance of what they had found. WIRED can now confirm that the operation was actually discovered by the DOJ six months earlier, in late May 2020—but the scale and significance of the breach wasn’t immediately apparent.

America’s spies are losing their edge Bloomberg Max Hastings As late as 2007, the US intelligence community’s annual threat assessment did not even mention cyberwarfare. Today, of course, it is recognised as central to security, and both the Chinese and Russians are good at it. The transfer, and thus theft, of secrets has been made far easier by the migration of information from paper to computers. Most corporations and some elements of national defense are appallingly vulnerable, because of lax electronic data security, highlighted by the Russians’ 2020 SolarWinds hack of Washington systems.

  • Chinese hackers outnumber FBI cyber personnel 'by at least 50 to 1' Fox News Brooke Singman FBI Director Christopher Wray testified Thursday that bureau agents are outnumbered by "at least 50 to 1" when attempting to address the threat China poses to critical infrastructure through its cyber hacking practices, and said Beijing has stolen more personal and corporate data from the U.S. than any other nation.

The US prepares to screen outbound investment Center for Strategic and International Studies Emily Benson and Margot Putnam The Biden administration is purportedly close to releasing an executive order establishing an outbound investment screening mechanism..In his April 2023 speech at Brookings, National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan explained, “We’re making progress in addressing outbound investments in sensitive technologies with a core national security nexus. These are tailored measures: they are not, as Beijing says, a technology blockade.”

Biden officials present a united front at top cyber conference Axios Sam Sabin The Biden administration's cyber team arrived at the RSA Conference with — for the first time — a clear message about how each agency approaches the government's vast cyber mission. That team hasn't felt so united in recent months, with reports of bickering between two top White House cyber officials, the recent departure of the first-ever national cyber director, and stories about disgruntlement inside the country's top cybersecurity agency.

NSA cybersecurity director says ‘buckle up’ for generative AI WIRED Lily Hay Newman At the RSA security conference in San Francisco this week, there's been a feeling of inevitability in the air. At talks and panels across the sprawling Moscone convention center, at every vendor booth on the show floor, and in casual conversations in the halls, someone is going to bring up generative AI and its potential impact on digital security and malicious hacking. NSA cybersecurity director Rob Joyce has been feeling it too.

Americas

Brazil’s lawmakers to vote on ‘fake news’ bill opposed by tech groups Financial Times Bryan Harris and Hannah Murphy Brazil’s Congress is poised to vote on contentious legislation to curb the spread of “fake news”, which has drawn opposition from Google and other tech groups facing tougher laws governing their content globally. Parliament is expected in the coming week to vote on the measure being pushed through, but critics decry it as draconian, rushed and open to abuse by special interests.

Janes

razilian technology company IACIT Soluções Tecnológicas, partially owned by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), completed installing its OTH 0100 over-the-horizon coastal surveillance radar system.

The radar, installed at the Albardão Lighthouse in Brazil's state of Rio Grande do Sul, is scheduled to be temporarily utilised by the Brazilian Navy, according to a 13 April letter of intent. A contract could be signed later whereby IACIT will sell the radar service, and not the radar itself, to the navy.

The OTH 0100 is designed to detect and track any ships entering a country's exclusive economic zone (EEZ), even if they have their Automatic Identification System (AIS) transmitters off, Jonas Xavier, new business co-ordinator at IACIT, told Janes.

North Asia

Cyberattacks increasing in Japan ahead of G7 summit The Japan Times Kyodo News The number of cyberattacks against companies and government offices has been increasing in Japan since March, ahead of a Group of Seven summit the country is set to host in May, sources familiar with the matter said Saturday. The series of attacks began around March 14 and are still ongoing.

GPS malfunction in northern Taiwan caused by agency Taipei Times Shelley Shan GPS interference in northern Taiwan last week was caused by a government agency calibrating a radio wave transmitter, the National Communications Commission said yesterday. The commission said it has asked the agency to conduct tests based on the Regulations Governing the Use of Radio Frequencies. The incident was first reported by a Twitter user identified as Erik Kannik, who said that it was the first time that he saw GPS jamming in Taiwan.

Southeast Asia

With AI emerging as both friend and foe, how should Malaysia regulate the technology? The Borneo Post With global powerhouses such as the United States and the European Union yet to implement comprehensive laws on AI, can Malaysia proactively take the steps it needs to keep the technology within the bounds of safety, ethics and fair competition? Malay Mail spoke to two researchers and a lawyer proficient in cybersecurity laws to explore potential steps that can be taken locally.

South & Central Asia

Indian Army to have dedicated cyber operations wing Tribune India Tribune News Service The Indian Army today announced changes to adapt niche technologies and to have dedicated cyber operations cell to secure its own networks. The changes were among the decisions taken at the Army Commanders' Conference (April 17-21), an Army spokesperson said. With the Army increasingly relying on network-based operations and on modern communication systems, the Commanders reviewed the requirement to safeguard networks and decided to operationalise the ‘Command Cyber Operations and Support Wings’.

Australia

Aussie energy technologies could reshape the ASX by 2030 Courier Mail Jeremy Liddle It is widely accepted that we must completely decarbonise our energy sector. So the current mix of the ASX energy sector – heavily leaning towards companies reliant on fossil fuels and gas – is in for a big shake up. We predict the ASX will become increasingly weighted towards companies accelerating the push to phase out fossil fuels and find appropriate solutions for the energy crisis.

$3bn ‘accelerator’ puts war hi-tech on fast track The Australian Ben Packham The government wants the accelerator to develop game-changing technologies “that will give the ADF an asymmetric ­advantage” over potential adversaries amid the most challenging strategic circumstances in generations. A $3.4bn Defence innovation "accelerator" will be charged with getting cutting-edge military technologies into service sooner, including hypersonic missiles, directed energy weapons and autonomous vehicles.

AI bots are being trained on Australian data. Should we be paid for it? The Sydney Morning Herald Nick Bonyhady Australian universities and the New South Wales government are among the largest known data sources from Australia used to train artificial intelligence chatbots such as ChatGPT but receive no compensation for their material.

Russia

The Kremlin attempts to poison minds worldwide EU vs Disinfo Kremlin propagandists continue their relentless global efforts to poison people’s minds, whether by manipulating facts around food security or denying Ukrainians their right to exist as a people and a state. Nevertheless, according to recent Gallup polls(opens in a new tab), despite this avalanche of disinformation Russia has failed to convince global audiences.

The Barents Observer

China has been very visible in Murmansk this week. On Monday, a groundbreaking memorandum on extensive cooperation in Artic waters was signed with FSB Coast Guard. The Chinese Coast Guard was then invited to observe the long-planned “Arctic Patrol 2023” maritime security exercise. On Thursday, Governor Andrei Chibis met Chinese diplomats and discussed a roadmap for increased business, shipbuilding and Northern Sea Route developments.

Africa

Africa boosting space technology to help farming, economy, environment Radio France Internationale Zeenat Hansrod Over 300 participants met in Côte d’Ivoire this week for the second edition of the NewSpace Africa conference. The event explores ways in which space can help boost local economies, fight climate change and improve agricultural technologies. The second edition of NewSpace Africa gathered three times more participants than the first conference, in 2022 in Kenya. The event is organised by the African Union Commission and Space in Africa.

Middle East

Iran’s state-backed cyber-threat groups: Upgraded arsenals and aggressive approaches Iran News Update Jazeh Miller Microsoft’s Threat Intelligence team reported that the Iranian regime nation-state group known as MuddyWater, an Iran-based actor connected to the country’s Ministry of Intelligence and Security, has been carrying out destructive attacks on hybrid environments disguised as ransomware operations. The attacks were carried out in collaboration with DEV-1084, an emerging activity cluster, and aimed at destruction and disruption.


Photo: La Cina di Xi Jinping - Verso un nuovo ordine mondiale sinocentrico? (Italian)

Gabriele and Nicola Iuvinale

ASE 2023

To download the book index, preface and introduction: https://www.extremarationews.com/reuters-news



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