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International press review Extrema Ratio May 4, 2023

Extrema Ratio focuses on the topics we work on, including geopolitcs, cybersecurity, critical technologies, foreign interference, disinformation, international law & national security.


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Extrema Ratio

G e N Iuvinale

Gli stretti legami con Pechino della piattaforma integrata per la trasmissione dei dati logistici LOGINK, usata in 20 porti in tutto il mondo, dovrebbero destare una seria preoccupazione nei governi nazionali, Italia compresa. L’allarme lanciato dagli Usa.

World

  • The Global Development Finance Agenda and the G7 Hiroshima Summit. A comprehensive assessment of the G7’s infrastructure financing initiatives to counter China. Conor M. Savoy.CSIS

Fight against ransomware follows government recommendations Bloomberg Andrew Martin It looks like the White House, the FBI and their international counterparts are finally making some progress in the fight against ransomware. Contributing to this effort are US sanctions against businesses that facilitate extortion payments, targeted shutdowns of marketplaces frequented by hackers and a new wave of regulations designed to bolster the cybersecurity defenses of businesses.

China

  • China says its stand on Ukraine war ‘has not changed’ after UN vote. Beijing backed a resolution last week that described the conflict as ‘aggression by the Russian Federation’. But China’s mission to the UN says its vote was on the entire text and wasn’t an endorsement of that paragraph. Jack Lau. South China Morning Post

  • Chinese e-commerce company behind Pinduoduo and Temu has relocated headquarters to Ireland. PDD Holdings listed an address in Dublin as its ‘principal executive offices’ in latest filings with the US SEC. The move comes as Temu attracts scrutiny from US lawmakers for potential ties to Xinjiang. Pinduoduo is still based out of Shanghai while Temu is headquartered in Boston. Louise Matsakis.Semafor

  • Multinationals add China-Taiwan risk clauses to contracts. Experts say companies increasingly concerned about legal and commercial fallout from potential conflict in the region. Echo Wong and Pak Yiu.Financial Times

  • The Chinese government has increasingly used exit bans to stop both Chinese and foreign nationals from leaving China since Xi Jinping took power in 2012, according to a new report by Safeguard Defenders. The report found that China has used exit bans to silence activists, intimidate foreign journalists, control ethnic and religious groups, and pressure people to return to China to face investigation. Meaghan Tobin reports for the Washington Post.

Tech war: China slams US Chips Act subsidies at WTO in Beijing’s latest protest against Washington’s restrictions: Xinhua South China Morning Post Xinmei Shen Beijing has hit out again at the US’s efforts to boost its semiconductor industry via subsidies under the Chips and Science Act, saying that the actions manifest a “Cold War mentality” and severely disrupt the global chip supply chain.

Main BRI developments

  • Sri Lanka Contracts with Chinese State-Owned Enterprise to Develop Colombo Port Infrastructure. On 21 April, the Sri Lanka Ports Authority (SLPA) and China Merchants Port Holdings (CMPorts) signed an agreement to build the “South Asia Commercial and Logistics Hub” in Colombo port, Sri Lanka’s largest and busiest port and one that has already received significant Chinese investment. The two sides will jointly build a logistics center and warehousing facility that will include value-added services and newer technologies that are being used to position and differentiate ports from others in a region. The project comes with an initial investment of USD 392 million under a public-private partnership model. The Chinese embassy in Sri Lanka is promoting the project as the first major foreign direct investment after Sri Lanka’s historic default on its external debt in 2022. In March 2023, the International Monetary Fund approved a $3 billion rescue loan for Sri Lanka.

  • China EXIM Bank to Finance Kenya’s Kiambu Road Expansion. On 18 April, reports announced that the Kenya Urban Roads Authority has reached an agreement with China Export-Import Bank to finance the USD 286 million (38.3 Kenyan shilling) expansion of the 25-km Kiambu Road that will connect Muthaiga, Kiambu, and Ndumberi. China’s Sinohydro Corporation is the key contractor for the project. Some local reporting is positioning the project as the first major debt taken on by Kenya since BRI funding to the country has diminished in recent years.

  • Huawei Signs Deal with Tanzania’s State-Run Telecom to Expand Broadband Coverage. According to 18 April reports from Xinhua news, Tanzania’s state-run telecom company – the Tanzania Telecommunications Corporation – signed an agreement valued at USD 16 million with Huawei Tanzania for the extension of the National ICT Broadband Backbone (NICTBB) to 23 districts in the country including the regions Shinyanga, Tanga, Kagera, Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Coast, Lindi, Mtwara, Ruvuma, Njombe and Mbeya. This is a multi-phase project which began in 2009. The additional fiber optic cable deployment is designed to enhance Tanzania’s position as a regional communications hub.

  • China Development Bank Establishes USD 1.3 Billion Credit Line for Brazil. On 14 April, it was reported that the China Development Bank (CDB) and Brazil's National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) signed an agreement to establish a USD 1.3 billion credit line for various projects in Brazil. The agreement can be broken into two sections of USD 800 million for long-term investments and USD 500 million for short-term investments. The investments are intended to finance projects across a variety of sectors such as infrastructure, energy, manufacturing, oil and gas, agriculture, mining, ESG, climate change and green development, digital economy, high technology, and municipal management. Short-term investments will have a timeline of three years, and long-term investments will have a timeline of 10 years.

  • Alibaba’s Cainiao Signs Agreement with Brazil’s State-Owned Postal Company. On 17 April, Alibaba’s logistics arm, Cainiao Smart Logistics Network, signed a partnership agreement with Brazil’s state-owned postal company Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos (Correios) in the international logistics sector. The agreement also includes collaboration in technological growth, express delivery networks, import-export logistics services, global air cargo, and development of local logistics infrastructure. In November 2022, Cainiao opened its first package sorting center in Brazil with plans to expand its network to 1,000 cities in Brazil by the end of 2025. At the same time, the company announced that São Paolo would serve as the company’s Latin American headquarters.

  • A few days ago, the Hadja Airport project in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria, was grandly started. This project is one of Nigeria's national transportation development strategic plans, and it is a key livelihood project to further enhance the navigation capacity of the northeast and promote economic development after the Nguru Airport project implemented by China Civil Engineering. After the completion of the new airport, it will greatly improve the convenience of transportation, enhance the mobility of government and business, and further promote the economic development of northeastern Nigeria. China Civil Engineering Nigeria Co., Ltd. will ensure that the project is completed on schedule and with high quality, strengthen the air transportation system in Jigawa State, and create more employment opportunities for regional development.

  • Recently, Qingdao Company of China Railway No. 10 Bureau won the bid for the civil construction (phase I) project of Guilin Nanyao Pharmaceutical Factory in Côte d'Ivoire. The winning bid amounted to 10.97 billion CFA francs, or about 124 million yuan. Côte d'Ivoire Guilin Nanyao Pharmaceutical Factory Civil Construction (Phase I) project is located in the high-tech park in the Grand Bassam area of Abidjan, with a planned land area of 50,000 square meters, and is divided into three phases. The construction area of the first phase of the project is about 22,336.14 square meters, and the planned construction period is 285 days, mainly including warehouses, preparation workshops, power centers, traffic gates, logistics gates and substation construction.

  • The China Road and Bridge Corporation Tecnova Joint Venture has signed a business contract with the Ministry of Infrastructure and Public Works of the Democratic Republic of Congo for the road project from Kwilu Ngongo to Kimpangu, a branch of National Highway 1. The project is located in the Central Congo Province in the western part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It starts from National Highway 1 and ends in border cities between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola. The main project content includes the upgrading and renovation of 96 kilometers of two-way two lane asphalt roads, the renovation of 16 kilometers of rural roads, and the construction of supporting social support projects for towns along the line. The implementation of the project will connect National Highway 1 of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Angolan highway network, radiating passenger and freight transportation to the capitals of both countries through this highway.

  • China Energy Northwest Power and Indonesia PTPrimanusa Energi Lestari signed a commercial contract for the Indonesia 12 MW biomass power plant project. Main job responsibilities: whole plant design, partial equipment procurement, civil engineering, installation, debugging, trial operation to COD. The project is located in the northeast of Aceh Province, Indonesia, approximately 150 kilometers from Medan City. The power station plans to install one 12 megawatt steam generator unit, powered by 100% EFB palm fruit skewers. After the completion of the project, it will make full use of the abandoned fruit strings from nearby palm refineries, achieve effective integration of local economic and environmental benefits, promote the development of local renewable energy, and assist Indonesia in achieving energy transformation.

  • A few days ago, China Jiangxi International Corporation won the bid for the Kamativi mine tailings pond and dam construction project in Zimbabwe. The project is located in Hwange Township in the west of Matabeleland Province, North Zimbabwe. The main construction content includes the construction of an earth-rock dam with a height of about 20 meters and a top width of about 10 meters, and a tailings pond with a storage capacity of about 4 million cubic meters. This is another breakthrough in the field of mineral construction in the Zimbabwean market following the tailings pond construction project of Huayou Lithium Mine Plant.

  • The Thai government has started talks with China's Dangdai New Energy Technology Co Ltd, aiming to incentivize battery production in the country. CATL is the world's largest EV battery supplier by market share. The deal will see the company open its first factory in Southeast Asia. The Chinese battery maker has made strides in battery technology recently. These include 500Wh/kg batteries that are said to have the energy density to power an airliner. The company also sells electric vehicle batteries to automakers including Ford, Tesla and Volkswagen.

USA

  • Senate votes in favour of reinstating tariffs on solar panels found to violate US trade rules. The Biden administration had temporarily halted tariffs to ensure adequate supply for combating climate change. President Biden has said that he will veto the measure, and a two-thirds majority of lawmakers in both houses would be needed to override him. Ana Swanson. The New York Times

  • Washington grants concession to Beijing over flights. The Department of Transportation on Wednesday issued an order allowing Chinese carriers to boost their weekly round-trip flights from eight to 12, matching the number of flights to China that US carriers have. Demetri Savastopulo. Financial Times

  • US Select Committee on the CCP launch investigation into Adidas, Nike, Shein and Temu over UFLPA compliance. House Select Committee Chairman Mike Gallagher (R-Wisc.) and Ranking Member Raja Krishnamoorthi (D-Ill.) have sent letters to the four companies, querying where materials for products are sourced and what steps they have taken to examine their supply chains since the law was passed. A copy of the letters sent to Adidas and Nike were shared by the Committee on Twitter. Jarrell Dillard. Bloomberg

  • TSMC may charge 30 percent more for chips made at US fabs. TSMC reportedly wants to cover some of the cost of setting up its Arizona fabs using $15 billion in government subsidies from the CHIPS Act funding pool. Adrian Potoroaca.Techspot

  • New rules curbing US investment in China will be tricky to implement. Analysis of the challenges that face the Biden administration as it seeks to clarify economic and security policies towards China. Martin Chorzempa. Peterson Institute for International Economics

  • A bipartisan group of senators plans to introduce legislation to overhaul how the government classifies and protects its most sensitive national-security secrets, according to people familiar with the matter. Complementary bills would reduce the amount of classified material by making it easier to downgrade or make it public while also looking to plug perceived gaps in the existing security-clearance process. Despite the widespread agreement, policymakers have not coalesced around specific overhaul proposals, and it is unclear if the Biden administration would support the congressional action. Dustin Volz and Lindsay Wise report for the Wall Street Journal.

  • Senate Democratic leader Chuck Schumer and Democratic committee leaders said they would introduce legislation, dubbed “China Competition 2.0,” to limit the flow of technology to China, deter China from initiating a conflict with Taiwan, and tighten rules to block U.S. capital from going to Chinese companies. Democrats hope to introduce the legislation in the next several months. Patricia Zengerle and David Shepardson report for Reuters.

  • Taiwan Defense Minister Chiu Kuo-cheng said today that the delivery of 66 new F-16Vs from the United States had been delayed due to supply chain disruptions. The ministry was working to minimize the damage and “make up deficiencies.” Reuters reports.



FDD

On Christmas Day, 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist, and the Cold War ended. Or did it?

The answer depends on whether the Cold War was a conflict between two powerful nation-states or a struggle between two opposing ideologies.

If it was the latter, the Cold War didn’t end with the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Rather, following a hiatus, Communist cold warriors in Moscow were superseded by Communist cold warriors in Beijing. And leaders of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) take Marxism/Leninism at least as seriously as did the last Soviet rulers.

U.S. to weigh rules for keeping AI safe from China, other competitors Nikkei Asia Rintaro Tobita U.S. policymakers will study the need for regulations to keep vital artificial intelligence technology out of the hands of America's competitors, in a possible clampdown akin to restrictions on semiconductor exports to China.

US chipmaker says EU green subsidies are just as good as at home Bloomberg Wilfried Eckl-Dorna Wolfspeed Inc. sees green-tech subsidies in the European Union as on par with what the US is offering to attract production of semiconductors important for electric cars.

Americas

  • The Canadian Security Intelligence Service withheld information about Chinese threats against Michael Chong, a Canadian lawmaker, and his family, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said yesterday. Trudeau added that he had told the agency that such threats must be revealed immediately in the future. Conservative leader, Pierre Poilievre, said he found it “very hard to believe” that the intelligence agency would not tell the prime minister or his top public safety minister about the threats. Chong learned about a threat to his family in Hong Kong from a newspaper and slammed the Trudeau government for inaction. Leyland Cecco reports for the Guardian.

  • Brazil’s federal police raided the home of former President Jair Bolsonaro yesterday as part of a probe into allegations that he faked COVID-19 vaccination records for himself and family members to travel to the United States. Luciana Magalhaes and Samantha Pearson report for the Wall Street Journal.

Dominican Republic: Pegasus spyware discovered on prominent journalist’s phone Amnesty International A high-profile woman journalist in the Dominican Republic has been targeted with NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware, in the first confirmed case in the country, Amnesty International reveals in a new investigation published on World Press Freedom Day.

North Asia

NATO to open Japan office to enable Indo-Pacific consultation Reuters NATO is planning to open a liaison office in Japan, its first in Asia, to facilitate consultations in the region, the Nikkei Asia reported on Wednesday, citing Japanese and NATO officials.

Southeast Asia

‘Best deal wins’: Malaysia not ruling out China’s Huawei as it eyes second 5G network South China Morning Post Joseph Sipalan Malaysia’s Digital Minister Fahmi Fadzil has reassured Swedish telecoms giant Ericsson that its multibillion-dollar contract to help with the nation’s 5G roll-out still stands, but stressed that the country is able to make deals with any entity it chooses as it eyes a second network.

South & Central Asia

Cyber-espionage campaigns targeting military personnel in South Asia, Meta warns The Record by Recorded Future Alexander Martin State-linked hackers in Pakistan have been spying on military personnel in India and the Pakistan Air Force using fake apps and websites to compromise their personal devices, Meta announced on Wednesday.

Apple’s reluctant shift toward India Rest of World Nilesh Christopher Apple has been shifting iPhone production to India as U.S.-China geopolitical tensions flare up. India’s commerce minister, Piyush Goyal, said that Apple wants the country to account for 25% of its production. But Apple never said so.

Australia

  • Australian Prime Minister and UK Defence Secretary visit the shipyard where AUKUS nuclear submarines will be built. Anthony Albanese was joined by Ben Wallace on a trip to Barrow-in-Furness shipyard. Gov.uk

Australia sets ‘ambitious goal’ to build first complete quantum computer The Sydney Morning Herald Liam Mannix Australia will strive to build the first error-corrected quantum computer within the decade – a huge and expensive goal that, if achieved, would put the country at the forefront of the new technology.

The Sydney Morning Herald

Nick Bonyhady, Zoe Samios

Search giant Google pulled in a record $8.4 billion in revenue from Australia last year but channeled most of the money offshore via reseller agreements while the social network Twitter, which has dominated headlines, made $19 million.

Russia / Ucraine

  • UkrainianPresident Volodymyr Zelenskyy yesterday denied Ukraine carried out an alleged drone attack on the Kremlin, which Russia says was an attempted assassination of President Vladimir Putin. The Russian president’s office said defenses downed two drones overnight. Ukraine has said the Russian accusations are merely a pretext for massive attacks on its territory. Russia has threatened to retaliate when and where necessary in response to this “terrorist” act. Will Vernon and Thomas Spender report for BBC News.

  • Secretary of State Antony Blinken yesterday cautioned against believing Russia’s assassination attempt allegation, saying he would take anything coming from the Kremlin with a “large shaker of salt.” Four U.S. officials said the Biden administration had no foreknowledge of an impending drone attack on the Kremlin. Senior Biden administration officials are still working to confirm whether the suspected attack was ordered by Kyiv, conducted by a rogue pro-Ukraine group, or a false flag operation by Russia. Alexander Ward and Jonathan Lemire report for POLITICO.

  • The Biden administration will send Ukraine another $300 million in lethal aid, the Pentagon announced yesterday. The announcement comes less than a week after Ukrainian Defense Minister Oleksii Reznikov said that “preparations are being finalized” for the coming offensive and that they were “mostly ready.” Ellen Mitchell reports for The Hill.

  • Ukraine is better positioned to make headway in its expected counteroffensive against Russia than leaked intelligence reports previously indicated, Secretary of State Antony Blinken said yesterday. “Where Ukraine might have been a month ago, two months ago, three months ago, is not where it is now in terms of its ability, for example, to prosecute a counteroffensive and to deal with the ongoing Russian aggression,” Blinken noted. Missy Ryan and John Hudson report for the Washington Post.

  • Ukrainian air defenses last night withstood Russia’s most intense air attack on Kyiv since the start of the year, Serhiy Popko, head of the Kyiv city military administration, wrote on Telegram. There were no civilian casualties or damage to residential buildings and infrastructure. Josh Pennington reports for CNN.

  • Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy is expected to visit the International Criminal Court today. The International Criminal Court has issued an arrest warrant for Russian President Vladimir Putin and said he “is allegedly responsible for the war crime of unlawful deportation of (children) and that of unlawful transfer of (children) from occupied areas of Ukraine to the Russian Federation.” Mike Corder reports for AP News.

  • Darya Trepova, accused of assassinating a prominent Russian military blogger in a St Petersburg cafe a month ago, has alleged she was set up. Trepova is now in detention in Moscow on terrorism charges, accused of cooperating with Ukrainian special services. Trepova did not say who supposedly set her up. Reuters reports.

Europe

Brazil judge orders Google to testify over fake news bill Bloomberg Daniel Carvalho, Andrew Rosati A Brazilian Supreme Court judge on Tuesday ordered top executives from Google, Meta and Spotify to appear before the country’s federal police to testify about a public campaign against pending legislation that takes aim at so-called fake news.

Italian water supplier serving 500,000 people hit with ransomware attack The Record by Recorded Future Jonathan Greig An Italian company that provides drinking water to nearly half a million people is experiencing some technical disruptions following a ransomware attack. Concerns have been raised globally about attacks on water suppliers following a string of incidents in several countries. South Staffordshire Water, which supplies water for more than 1.7 million people in England, was severely damaged by a ransomware attack in August 2022 while several water suppliers across the U.S. have dealt with ransomware incidents.

UK

  • UK wants to reinvigorate ties with Hong Kong, says Consul General. Brian Davidson, British consul general to Hong Kong and Macau, has said difficult issues should be ‘subjected more to honest behind-the-scenes discussions with less megaphone diplomacy’. Jeffie Lam. South China Morning Post,

  • UK Trade Remedies Authority launches two reviews into anti-dumping and countervailing measures on tyres imported from China. The TRA will determine whether injury to the UK industry would be likely to continue or recur if the measures were no longer applied. The UK’s retreading industry is estimated to contribute around £230 million to the UK economy each year and supports 5,500 UK jobs. Gov.uk

  • Britain cannot stand idly by as China wages the autocracies' war on journalism. Co-founder and Chief Executive of Hong Kong Watch issues a call to action. Benedict Rogers. The Telegraph

  • Born in Asia but Based in Britain, HSBC Fights to Stay in One Piece. A rundown of HSBC’s struggles ahead of its annual shareholder meeting tomorrow. Michael J. de la Merced.The New York Times

Meta: Chinese disinformation network was behind London front company recruiting content creators The Record by Recorded Future Alexander Martin A Chinese disinformation network operating fictitious employee personas across the internet used a front company in London to recruit content creators and translators around the world, according to Meta.

AI ‘could be as transformative as Industrial Revolution’ The Guardian Hannah Devlin The new genre of AI could be as transformative as the Industrial Revolution, the government’s outgoing chief scientific adviser has said, as he urged Britain to act immediately to prevent huge numbers of people becoming jobless.

Middle East

  • Iranian forces yesterday seized a second oil tanker in the Strait of Hormuz, the U.S. Navy said. Two people directly involved in efforts to release the first tanker told The Wall Street Journal that its seizure was retaliation for an American move to redirect a Greek-owned tanker moving Iranian crude to China towards Texas in late April. Those two people said they did not know what was behind Iran’s seizure of the second tanker. Dion Nissenbaum and Costas Paris for the Wall Street Journal.

Iranian hackers turn to influence operations to amplify cyberattacks The Record by Recorded Future Daryna Antoniuk Iranian state-backed hackers are increasingly using influence operations to amplify the impact of conventional cyberattacks and promote Tehran's political agenda, according to new research. Last year, Microsoft identified 24 influence operations that were attributed to the Iranian government and military — a significant increase from seven operations identified in 2021.

Africa

  • U.N. aid chief Martin Griffiths has said it will be challenging to secure an end to the fighting in Sudan, as the rival factions are keen to “keep it going.” Griffiths said the two rival parties spoke of their attachment to humanitarian principles, but there did not seem to be a will to end the war. Wycliffe Muia and Basillioh Rukanga report for BBC News.

  • Both sides of the fighting in Sudan have secured vital infrastructure, and neither side has gained a definitive upper hand in the fighting yet. That risks prolonging the conflict since neither side sees a reason to negotiate, and both still believe they might win, said Alan Boswell, Horn of Africa director for the International Crisis Group. Katharine Houreld and Hafiz Haroun report for the Washington Post.

Big Tech

Google promised to defund climate lies, but the ads keep coming The New York Times Nico Grant, Steven Lee Myers In October 2021, Google promised to stop placing ads alongside content that denied the existence and causes of climate change, so that purveyors of the false claims could no longer make money on its platforms, including YouTube. In a report released on Tuesday, researchers from the organizations accused YouTube of continuing to profit from videos that portrayed the changing climate as a hoax or exaggeration.

Apple is a Chinese company Financial Times Jay Newman With Apple stock near an all-time high, it’s worth asking how it got there — and how long that can last. The world’s most valuable company makes great products, but it may turn out that the biggest driver of its share price has been the close relationship CEO Tim Cook has cultivated with China.

FTC accuses Facebook of violating privacy agreement, proposes ban on profiting off children’s data CyberScoop Tonya Riley The Federal Trade Commission proposed on Wednesday that Facebook be prohibited from profiting off of data it collects from minors, a move that comes in response to alleged violations of the company’s previous agreements with the agency to protect user privacy.

TikTok’s Chinese owner ByteDance scraps Resso, its free music streaming service in Indonesia, India, Brazil South China Morning Post TikTok owner ByteDance Ltd. is scrapping the free tier of Resso, its music streaming service for emerging markets. Reworking the service’s pricing may be part of cost-cutting measures as internet firms like ByteDance focus on profitability during a global economic downturn. It’s also in line with a growing move toward charging for formerly free online services – such as with Twitter and Meta Platforms Inc. asking users to pay for verification.

Artificial Intelligence

3 things everyone’s getting wrong about AI The Washington Post Tatum Hunter From chess engines to Google translate, artificial intelligence has existed in some form since the mid-20th century. But these days, the technology is developing faster than most people can make sense of it. That leaves regular people vulnerable to misleading claims about what AI tools can do and who’s responsible for their impact. “We have to get smarter about what this technology can and cannot do, because we live in adversarial times where information, unfortunately, is being weaponized,” said Claire Wardle, co-director of the Information Futures Lab at Brown University, which studies misinformation and its spread.

150 African workers for ChatGPT, TikTok and Facebook vote to unionize at Landmark Nairobi meeting TIME Billy Perrigo More than 150 workers whose labor underpins the AI systems of Facebook, TikTok and ChatGPT gathered in Nairobi on Monday and pledged to establish the first African Content Moderators Union, in a move that could have significant consequences for the businesses of some of the world’s biggest tech companies.

When it comes to online scams, ‘ChatGPT is the new crypto’ CyberScoop AJ Vicens Digital fraudsters are as enamored with ChatGPT as everyone else on the internet and have taken advantage its allure to spread a new strain of malware across Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp in recent months.


Photo: La Cina di Xi Jinping - Verso un nuovo ordine mondiale sinocentrico? (Italian)

Gabriele and Nicola Iuvinale

ASE 2023

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