top of page

Xi Jinping's China announces criteria for trying and sentencing [to death] the most ardent activists and "Taiwan independenceists"

Aggiornamento: 23 giu

'Taiwan independence' criminals can be tried even if they don't show up in court [...] If the prosecutor's office determines, upon examination, that the facts of crime are clear, the evidence is strong and sufficient, and that criminal responsibility should be prosecuted in accordance with the law, it may initiate a public prosecution in the People's Court, and the People's Court shall decide to open a trial if, upon examination, it meets the conditions for the application of the procedure for trials in absentia.' - Supreme Prosecutor


On June 21, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of State Security and the Ministry of Justice jointly issued opinions on the legal punishment of the crimes of state-splitting and inciting state-splitting by hard elements of "Taiwan independence," which took effect on the date of issuance.



The opinions implement Xi Jinping's thinking on the rule of law and the overall strategy of the Communist Party of China to resolve the Taiwan issue in the new era and, in accordance with the Anti-Secession Law, the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, the Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China and other legal provisions.


The new opinions set out general requirements for the punishment of secession and incitement to secession crimes committed by intransigent elements of Taiwan independence in accordance with the law.


Specific provisions have been issued on the general requirements for the punishment of "Taiwan independence" intransigents for secession and incitement to secession, sentencing standards and procedural rules, providing clear guidelines for the handling of court cases.

First of all, the criteria for identifying crimes against separatist acts were clarified. For a very small number of die-hard supporters of "Taiwan independence" who organize, plan and carry out separatist acts such as "legal independence of Taiwan", "relying on foreign countries to seek independence" and "using force to seek independence", the specific circumstances in which the crime of secession and incitement to secession is applicable are defined.


The criteria for identifying the "ringleaders", "serious crimes", "active participation", etc. are also indicated. involved in the relevant crimes.


Secondly, the aggravating circumstances are clarified and the terms for criminal prosecution are reiterated. It is stipulated that those who collude with foreign or foreign institutions, organizations or individuals to commit criminal acts of separatism or incite separatism will be severely punished in accordance with the law. If a criminal act is continuous, the prosecution period will be calculated from the date of cessation of the criminal act if a person eludes investigation or trial after the public security organ or the national security organ has initiated an investigation or the people's court accepts the case; in these cases the limitation of the prosecution period is not excluded.


Third, the opinions make it clear that it is necessary to adhere to the principle of combining leniency and severity and embody the principle that the punishment should be worthy of the crime. Follow the punishments provided by law, be harsh when necessary and lenient when necessary.


It specifically stipulates that "Taiwan independence" diehards voluntarily abandon their "Taiwan independence" separatist position, no longer carry out "Taiwan independence" separatist activities, and take measures to reduce and eliminate the harmful consequences or prevent the expansion of the damage. If they comply with the relevant provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, the case may be closed.


Finally, legal procedures must be followed and legal rights protected. It is clarified that cases involving crimes committed by supporters of "Taiwan independence" that divide the country and incite secession have the right to defense, including the right of appeal and other litigation rights in accordance with the law.


The "Opinions" emphasize that people's courts, people's procuratorates, public security agencies, national security agencies and judicial administrative bodies must fully exercise their functions, severely punish the die-hard elements of "Taiwan independence" in compliance with the secession law and incite crimes of secession and resolutely defend national sovereignty, unity and the entire territory.



The full text is as follows:


Notice of the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of State Security, and the Ministry of Justice on Issuing the Opinions on Punishing the Crimes of Secession and Inciting Secession by Diehard "Taiwan Independence" Elements in Accordance with the Law


To the High People's Courts, the People's Procuratorates, the Public Security Departments (Bureaus), the State Security Departments (Bureaus), the Justice Departments (Bureaus) of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government, the Military Courts and Military Procuratorates of the People's Liberation Army, the Production and Construction Corps Branch of the High People's Court of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the People's Procuratorate, the Public Security Bureau, the State Security Bureau, and the Justice Bureau of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps:


In order to punish the crimes of secession and incitement of secession by diehard "Taiwan Independence" elements in accordance with the law, and to effectively safeguard national sovereignty, unity, and territorial integrity, in accordance with the provisions of the Anti-Secession Law, the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, the Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, and other laws and relevant judicial interpretations, and in light of the actual work, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of State Security, and the Ministry of Justice jointly formulated the Opinions on Punishing the Crimes of Secession and Incitement of Secession by Diehard "Taiwan Independence" Elements in Accordance with the Law, which are now issued. Please implement them conscientiously.


Supreme People's Court Supreme People's Procuratorate


Ministry of Public Security Ministry of State Security Ministry of Justice


May 26, 2024


Chinese version


最高人民法院 最高人民检察院 公安部 国家安全部 司法部印发《关于依法惩治“台独”顽固分子分裂国家、煽动分裂国家犯罪的意见》的通知


各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院、人民检察院、公安厅(局)、国家安全厅(局)、司法厅(局),解放军军事法院、军事检察院,新疆维吾尔自治区高级人民法院生产建设兵团分院、新疆生产建设兵团人民检察院、公安局、国家安全局、司法局:


为依法惩治“台独”顽固分子分裂国家、煽动分裂国家犯罪,切实维护国家主权、统一和领土完整,根据《反分裂国家法》和《中华人民共和国刑法》、《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》等法律以及相关司法解释的规定,结合工作实际,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、国家安全部、司法部联合制定了《关于依法惩治“台独”顽固分子分裂国家、煽动分裂国家犯罪的意见》,现予以印发,请认真贯彻执行。

最高人民法院 最高人民检察院

公安部 国家安全部 司法部

2024年5月26日


关于依法惩治“台独”顽固分子分裂国家、煽动分裂国家犯罪的意见

为依法惩治“台独”顽固分子分裂国家、煽动分裂国家犯罪,切实维护国家主权、统一和领土完整,根据《反分裂国家法》和《中华人民共和国刑法》、《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》等法律以及相关司法解释的规定,结合工作实际,制定本意见。

一、总体要求

1.世界上只有一个中国,台湾是中国领土不可分割的一部分。极少数“台独”顽固分子大肆进行“台独”分裂活动,严重危害台湾海峡地区和平稳定,严重损害两岸同胞共同利益和中华民族根本利益。人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关、国家安全机关和司法行政机关要充分发挥职能作用,依法严惩“台独”顽固分子分裂国家、煽动分裂国家犯罪,坚决捍卫国家主权、统一和领土完整。


二、准确认定犯罪

2.以将台湾从中国分裂出去为目的,组织、策划、实施下列行为之一的,依照刑法第一百零三条第一款的规定,以分裂国家罪定罪处罚:

(1)发起、建立“台独”分裂组织,策划、制定“台独”分裂行动纲领、计划、方案,指挥“台独”分裂组织成员或者其他人员实施分裂国家、破坏国家统一活动的;

(2)通过制定、修改、解释、废止台湾地区有关规定或者“公民投票”等方式,图谋改变台湾是中国一部分的法律地位的;

(3)通过推动台湾加入仅限主权国家参加的国际组织或者对外进行官方往来、军事联系等方式,图谋在国际社会制造“两个中国”、“一中一台”、“台湾独立”的;

(4)利用职权在教育、文化、历史、新闻传媒等领域大肆歪曲、篡改台湾是中国一部分的事实,或者打压支持两岸关系和平发展和国家统一的政党、团体、人员的;

(5)其他图谋将台湾从中国分裂出去的行为。

3.在“台独”分裂犯罪集团中起组织、策划、指挥作用的,应当认定为刑法第一百零三条第一款规定的“首要分子”。

4.实施本意见第二条规定的行为,具有下列情形之一的,应当认定为刑法第一百零三条第一款规定的“罪行重大”:

(1)直接参与实施“台独”分裂组织主要分裂活动的;

(2)实施“台独”分裂活动后果严重、影响恶劣的;

(3)其他在“台独”分裂活动中起重大作用的。

5.实施本意见第二条规定的行为,具有下列情形之一的,应当认定为刑法第一百零三条第一款规定的“积极参加”:

(1)多次参与“台独”分裂组织分裂活动的;

(2)在“台独”分裂组织中起骨干作用的;

(3)在“台独”分裂组织中积极协助首要分子实施组织、领导行为的;

(4)其他积极参加的。

6.实施本意见第二条规定行为的,对首要分子或者罪行重大的,处无期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑,其中对国家和人民危害特别严重、情节特别恶劣的,可以判处死刑;对积极参加的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;对其他参加的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利。

7.以将台湾从中国分裂出去为目的,实施下列行为之一的,依照刑法第一百零三条第二款的规定,以煽动分裂国家罪定罪处罚:

(1)顽固宣扬“台独”分裂主张及其分裂行动纲领、计划、方案的;

(2)其他煽动将台湾从中国分裂出去的行为。

8.实施本意见第七条规定的行为,情节严重、造成严重后果或者造成特别恶劣影响的,应当认定为刑法第一百零三条第二款规定的“罪行重大”。

9.实施本意见第七条规定行为的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利;首要分子或者罪行重大的,处五年以上有期徒刑。

10.实施本意见第二条、第七条规定行为的,可以并处没收财产。

11.与外国或者境外机构、组织、个人相勾结实施本意见第二条、第七条规定行为的,依照刑法第一百零六条的规定从重处罚。

12.“台独”顽固分子分裂国家、煽动分裂国家的犯罪行为有连续或者继续状态的,追诉期限从犯罪行为终了之日起计算。在公安机关、国家安全机关立案侦查或者人民法院受理案件以后,逃避侦查或者审判的,不受追诉期限的限制。

三、正确适用程序

13.应当逮捕的犯罪嫌疑人如果在逃,公安机关、国家安全机关可以发布通缉令,采取有效措施,追捕归案。

14.犯罪嫌疑人、被告人自愿如实供述自己的罪行,承认指控的犯罪事实,愿意接受处罚的,可以依法从宽处理。

15.“台独”顽固分子主动放弃“台独”分裂立场,不再实施“台独”分裂活动,并采取措施减轻、消除危害后果或者防止危害扩大,符合刑事诉讼法第一百八十二条第一款规定的,可以撤销案件、不起诉或者对涉嫌数罪中的一项或多项不起诉。

16.犯罪嫌疑人、被告人依法享有辩护权利,除自己行使辩护权以外,还可以委托一至二人作为辩护人。

17.对于需要及时进行审判,经最高人民检察院核准的“台独”顽固分子分裂国家、煽动分裂国家犯罪案件,犯罪嫌疑人、被告人在境外,公安机关、国家安全机关移送起诉,人民检察院认为犯罪事实已经查清,证据确实、充分,依法应当追究刑事责任的,可以向人民法院提起公诉。人民法院进行审查后,对于起诉书中有明确的指控犯罪事实,符合缺席审判程序适用条件的,应当决定开庭审判。

前款案件,由最高人民法院指定的中级人民法院组成合议庭进行审理。

18.对人民检察院依照刑事诉讼法第二百九十一条第一款的规定提起公诉的“台独”顽固分子分裂国家、煽动分裂国家犯罪案件,人民法院立案后,应当将传票和起诉书副本送达被告人。传票和起诉书副本送达后,被告人未按要求到案的,人民法院应当开庭审理,依法作出判决,并对违法所得及其他涉案财产作出处理。

19.人民法院缺席审判“台独”顽固分子分裂国家、煽动分裂国家犯罪案件,被告人有权委托或者由近亲属代为委托一至二名辩护人。在境外委托的,应当依照有关规定对授权委托进行公证、认证。

被告人及其近亲属没有委托辩护人的,人民法院应当通知法律援助机构指派律师为被告人提供辩护。被告人及其近亲属拒绝法律援助机构指派的律师辩护的,人民法院应当查明原因。理由正当的,应当准许,但被告人或者其近亲属应当在五日以内另行委托辩护人;被告人及其近亲属未另行委托辩护人的,人民法院应当在三日以内通知法律援助机构另行指派律师为其提供辩护。

20.人民法院缺席审判“台独”顽固分子分裂国家、煽动分裂国家犯罪案件,应当将判决书送达被告人及其近亲属、辩护人。被告人或者其近亲属不服判决的,有权向上一级人民法院上诉。辩护人经被告人或者其近亲属同意,可以提出上诉。

人民检察院认为人民法院的判决确有错误的,应当向上一级人民法院提出抗诉。

四、附则

21.对于“台独”顽固分子实施的资助危害国家安全犯罪活动罪等其他犯罪,可以参照本意见办理。

22.本意见自发布之日起施行。


'Taiwan independence' criminals can be tried even if they don't show up in court' - Supreme Prosecutor


On June 21, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of National Security and the Ministry of Justice jointly issued "Opinions on the Legal Punishment of Taiwan Independence Diehards" for secession and incitement to crimes of secession, which will come into force on the date of issuance.


Ma Yan, member of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court and president of the Second Criminal Court, presented the main content of the Opinions. There are 22 "Opinions" in total, mainly including:


  • In response to the separatist acts, the criteria for identifying the crimes of secession and incitement to secession for "Taiwan independence" diehards and the specific circumstances under which the crimes of secession and incitement to secession will be applied to the "Taiwan independence" have been clarified. independence of Taiwan". diehards were clarified and leaders involved in related crimes were punished. These serious crime determinations and active participation are expected to provide clear guidance for the judicial management of cases.


  • On the basis of severe punishment in accordance with the law, reiterate the circumstances of severe punishment and the period of immunity from prosecution.


  • For Taiwan independence diehards who submit a case for investigation by public security or national security organs, or who escape investigation or trial after the people's court accepts the case, are not subject to the limitation of the prosecution period.


  • Opinions clarify procedures applicable to trials in absentia


Deputy Director of the People's Procuratorate, Zhang Qingbin, said that according to the "opinions," as long as the law enforcement judicial organs determine the need for a timely retrospective trial, after approval by the People's Procuratorate, it is possible to transfer the prosecution in the absence of criminal suspicions, the public security organs, the state security organs, in accordance with the law, to the People's Procuratorate. If the prosecutor's office determines, upon examination, that the facts of crime are clear, the evidence is strong and sufficient, and that criminal responsibility should be prosecuted in accordance with the law, it may initiate a public prosecution in the People's Court, and the People's Court shall decide to open a trial if, upon examination, it meets the conditions for the application of the procedure for trials in absentia.


As long as criminal acts of secession or incitement to secession are committed, we will never tolerate or condone them, nor will we ever let them pass in silence, we will prosecute them to the fullest extent and punish them severely in accordance with the law.


Update 1


Judicial interpretation also denies the legality of Taiwan's "de jure independence," including the referendum form, effectively blocking institutional channels for "Taiwan independence" to use Taiwan's democratic and legal procedures to seek independence. Unification or independence is both a contest of strength and a legal game. The interpretive document classifies so-called "legislative" or referendum acts that change Taiwan's legal status as acts of "Taiwan independence" and punishes them ( with the death penalty.)


Update 2


Will Lai Qingde's pursuit of Taiwan independence be blocked by the CCP?


For Xi Jinping, a referendum cannot be the legal basis for "Taiwan independence," because such a vote cannot replace the entire Chinese people in making any decision regarding changing Taiwan's legal status. Of course, the risk of "de jure Taiwan independence" still exists and this new interpretive document is fully aware of it and clearly regulates it: death penalty. The CCP's judicial interpretation highlights the existence of China's sovereignty and direct jurisdiction over Taiwan's affairs, which is a visual manifestation of the logic of unification over the national territory and trust of the national system, as well as a full support for the patriotic forces of unification and a strong institutional guarantee of cross-strait unity and peace and stability.


In the CCP's logic, the "one China" principle has a sufficient basis in international law and a constitutional foundation to provide a basis of legitimacy for China's direct jurisdiction over Taiwan's affairs.

In the violent Kinmen incident earlier this year, China exercised its direct jurisdiction over Taiwan's relevant maritime areas by boarding and inspecting the vessels and personnel concerned, which is -- to the CCP -- a manifestation of the new normal of governance. The same jurisprudential basis also applies to mainland China's navigation and control of Taiwan's maritime areas and airspace. 


In terms of territorial and personal jurisdiction of domestic criminal law, the Taiwan region and its residents will be subject to the unified jurisdiction of Chinese law. 

The relevant provisions of the Taiwan region and the fact of ruling power cannot counter the authority of sovereignty and the state-specific jurisdiction system. Overall, this judicial interpretation document is constitutes a real weapon of the CCP in the struggle against "Taiwan independence" "in accordance with the law" and is a manifestation of the pursuit of mainland reunification and the use of the rule of law to take control of the dominant and active role in cross-strait relations. After the issuance of judicial interpretation, it is expected that there will be relevant court cases and trials and that "Taiwan independence" elements will face severe repression in terms of political futures and legal responsibilities, thus accelerating the process of full cross-strait reunification.


As for the external interventionist forces, the CCP's legal interpretation does not admit any legal justification for their involvement and submission to Chinese law, including procedural law.




12 visualizzazioni0 commenti

Comments


bottom of page